Aeromonas is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in fresh water ponds and aquariums. This germ can cause disease in fish and amphibians. Aeromonas can cause discoloration of the limbs of amphibians and fins of fish. It can also cause internal bleeding in these aquatic animals.People can become infected through open wounds or by drinking contaminated water. Young children and adults with weak immune systems are most commonly affected and may have diarrhea or blood infections.Maintaining good water quality in aquariums, promptly removing dead fish, and practicing healthy habits, including hand washing, will reduce the risk of Aeromonas infection.
Mycobacterium marinum is a type of bacteria that causes disease in fish, reptiles, and amphibians. This germ is found in fresh water ponds and aquariums. It is spread to people and animals through contaminated aquarium water. All fish are susceptible to mycobacteriosis. This disease is typically slow growing in fish but can affect some fish more quickly. Affected fish may show no signs of illness or may stop eating, lose their fins or scales, develop sores, or appear deformed.People can become infected with Mycobacterium marinum by having direct contact with infected animals or contaminated water (for example, contaminated ponds or aquariums). The most common sign of infection is development of a skin infection. In very rare cases, the bacteria can spread throughout the body systems. Infections progress slowly and may get better on their own. In some instances, antibiotics and surgical wound treatments are required to prevent deep infection.
Salmonella is a group of bacteria that can live in the intestinal tract of many different animals. Salmonellosis (sal-mohn-el-OH-sis) is a bacterial disease caused by Salmonella.Although Salmonella is most often spread when a person eats contaminated food, the bacteria also can be passed between people and animals. Many different animals and pets can carry these germs. Animals known to commonly spread Salmonella to humans includeReptiles (turtles, lizards, and snakes)Amphibians (frogs and toads)Poultry (chicks, chickens, ducklings, ducks, geese, and turkeys)Other birds (parakeets, parrots, and wild birds)Rodents (mice, rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs)Other small mammals (hedgehogs)Farm animals (goats, calves, cows, sheep, and pigs)DogsCatsHorses
Streptococcus iniae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen; such infections generally occur through injuries associated with preparing whole fresh fish for cooking. Those infected to date have been of Asian descent, are usually elderly (average age 68 years), and have had >1 underlying conditions that may predispose them to infection. Studies of the foundations of growth characteristics of S. iniae and its interactions with piscine host cells have recently been complemented by molecular studies. Advances in molecular biology have allowed research groups to identify numerous virulence factors and to explore their roles in the progression of S. iniae infection. Many of these virulence factors are homologous to those found in the major human pathogen S. pyogenes. An increased understanding of the properties of these factors and their effect on the success of infection is leading to novel approaches to control S. iniae infection; in particular, vaccination programs at fish farms have reduced the reservoir of infection for additional clinical cases.